The Neoantigen Revolution
Neo-Epitopes likely to be seen as “Non-Self”
The advent of Next Generation Sequencing has now made it possible to sequence the entire genome or exome (coding regions) of tumor and matched normal cells to identify all of the mutations that have occurred (mutanome). The resultant mutanome will then be used to personalize each cancer immunotherapy based on the patient’s genomics to improve patient outcomes. Neoepitopes represent an untapped and promising therapeutic area for cancer treatment. Prior cancer vaccines target tumor-associated antigens, which are expressed on both healthy and cancerous cells and thus, leading to toxicities. Exploiting natural immune-surveillance, we direct the immune system into targeting the cancer cells specifically expressing neoepitopes.
Immune Response and the Importance of Identifying and Removing Both "Self-Like" Inhibitory and Cross-Reactive Neoepitopes
Ancer™ - derived neoepitopes are exclusively expressed by cancer cells, allowing for a precision immunotherapy that focuses on "non-self" neoepitopes via the identification and removal of both the “Self Like” inhibitory neoepitopes that can trigger an immune suppressive response and the removal of “Self Like” cross-reactive neoepitopes that can trigger an immune related adverse event.
"Self-Like" Inhibitory Neoepitopes
While both MHC classes I and II support the surveillance and eradication of cancer tissue, regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a highly immune-suppressive subset of T cells. Tregs are potent suppressors of effector T cells, and, consequently, increased densities of tumor-infiltrating Treg cells have been associated with poor prognosis in a number of cancers. Treg cells protect healthy individuals from developing autoimmune diseases and allergies, whereas in cancer malignancies, they promote tumor progression by suppressing effective anti-tumor immunity. Ancer™ enables the identification and removal of “Self Like” inhibitory Treg neoepitopes.
"Self-Like" Cross-reactive Neoepitopes
Certain neoepitopes, while mutated, still look like “Self” and may trigger a cross-reactive, immune related adverse event. Ancer™ enables the identification and removal of “Self Like” cross-reactive neoepitopes.